Tokyo 100-8919, Japan
Tel: +81 33 580 3311
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), International Cooperation Planning Headquarters is responsible for charting out Japan’s ODA policy and strategy, while implementation of ODA programmes lies with the key ODA implementing Agency Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). In the area of AfT, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) also play a major role in the implementation of trade and private sector related technical cooperation programmes.
For developing countries, including LDCs, to reap further benefits from the multilateral trading system, trade liberalization alone is not sufficient. Enhancing capacities on the supply side and encouraging assistance for this purpose is indispensable. Since Aid for Trade (AfT) initiatives contribute to increasing the trade capacities of developing countries, Japan continues to provide various measures for AfT in line with “Partnership for Quality Infrastructure,” “Expanded Partnership for Quality Infrastructure” and the "One Village, One Product" movement.
Japan's Development Initiatives for Trade
Japan announced the "Development Initiative for Trade," prior to the WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong, China in December 2005. This initiative featured (a) implementation of Duty-Free and Quota-Free Market Access for substantially all products originating from LDCs; (b) provision of US$10 billion of financial assistance including trade, production, and distribution infrastructure for three years (2006-08); and (c) as part of (b), the exchange of a total of 10,000 trainees and experts in trade-related fields over the same period, the targets of which were fully achieved. During the designated period (2006-08) of the initiative, the total sum of financial assistance amounted to US$17.66 billion, significantly exceeding the target at 177%.
Given the successful results of the above-mentioned first initiative, Japan announced a new AfT strategy, "Development Initiative for Trade 2009" in July 2009. Its main pillar was US$12 billion of financial assistance for trade-related projects including trade, production, and distribution infrastructure for three years from 2009 to 2011. During the designated period (2009-11) of this initiative, the total sum of financial assistance amounted to US$23.36 billion, which reached 195% of the target, well surpassing the amount of the first initiative. Despite the fact that no additional development initiative has been launched since then, Japan has continuously expanded its assistance to a total of US$31.65 billion for the three years from 2013 to 2015. This is representative of Japan's strong commitment to AfT, which Japan considers as important to help beneficiary countries meet the new challenges they face in the regional and global economy.
On May 21st, 2015, Prime Minister Abe announced “Partnership for Quality Infrastructure” on the occasion of the 21st International Conference on the Future of Asia, held in Tokyo. With this Partnership, the Government of Japan promotes “quality infrastructure investment” in collaboration with other countries and international organizations. To that end, Japan and the strengthened Asian Development Bank will provide approximately USD 110 billion for quality infrastructure development in Asia over the next five years. Subsequently, in May 2016, at the 24th meeting of the Management Council for Infrastructure Strategy, Prime Minister Abe delivered an initiative titled “Expanded Partnership for Quality Infrastructure” which was directed toward the G7 Ise-Shima Summit meeting 2016. Through the initiative, Japan will aim to provide financing of approximately 200 billion USD in the next five years to infrastructure projects across the world, including those for natural resources, energy, etc. Also, Japan will further improve related measures for the promotion of quality infrastructure investment.
Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD)
The Sixth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD VI) was held in Nairobi, the Republic of Kenya, on August 27 and 28, 2016. One of the priority areas of the discussion was economic diversification and industrialization. The improvement of the business environment in Africa was the key component in the discussion. Consistent with the results of such discussions, Japan announced that it would invest approximately 30 billion US dollars for the future of Africa.
Commitments concerning trade and development also include the following:
JETRO will strengthen the partnership with African investment agencies and set “Japan Desk” in the investment promotion agencies of 9 African countries;
Japan will launch “Japan-Africa Public-Private Economic Forum” to support private-sector companies in establishing businesses in Africa; and
Japan will aim to have agreements related to investment signed or entered into force with 100 countries and regions, and will intensively work towards concluding them with African countries. Japan will also aim to conclude tax treaties to further accelerate the economic interaction and investment between Japan and African countries.
Principal official agency responsible for TCB assistance to developing countries
JICA is an independent administrative institution that coordinates ODA for the Government of Japan. JICA is entrusted with assisting economic and social growth in developing countries and the promotion of international cooperation and is responsible for the transfer of technical assistance and knowledge. The current organization was formed on October 1, 2003, as outlined in the International Cooperation (Independent Governmental) Agency Act of 2002. The predecessor (also known as “JICA”) was a semi-governmental organization under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, formed in 1974. In 2008 JICA and part of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) merged to form the “New JICA.” The New JICA has become one of the largest bilateral development organizations in the world, with a network of around 100 overseas offices, projects in more than 150 countries, and available financial resources of approximately US$2,564 billion in 2015. The reorganized agency is also responsible for administering part of Japan’s grant aid, which is currently under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and so all three major ODA components, technical cooperation, grant aid, and concessional loans, are now managed under one roof. The New JICA will also strengthen research and training capacity in the years ahead, acting as a kind of ODA think tank, contributing to global development strategies, enhancing collaboration with international institutions, and being better able to communicate Japan’s position on the leading development and aid issues.
For more information: https://www.jica.go.jp/english/publications/reports/annual/2016/index.html
JICA-RI has been conducting cross-field research and analyses on a broad range of agendas in development since its establishment in 2008. JICA-RI is open to domestic and international researchers, aid-implementing organizations, government bodies, private-sector corporations, and NGOs, and it networks with both national and international institutes and individuals through joint studies. It is also equipped to provide input to policy makers and donor organizations in developing countries.
Tel: +81 35 226 6660/6661/6662/6663
Tokyo 102-8012, Japan
JICA sends eager Japanese citizens (volunteers) to developing countries to work together with local communities. The types of volunteers are (i) the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (ages 20 to 39); (ii) the Senior Volunteers (ages 40 to 69); and (iii) the Youth and Senior Volunteers for Nikkei Communities (Japanese Descendant Communities in Latin America). JICA Volunteers are sent for two years, in various fields ranging from education, nursing to auto mechanics, IT, and sports.
Other government and official agencies with responsibilities directly relevant to TCB
E-mail : info [at] iist.or.jp
Toranomon Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan
The IIST provides training and other capacity building activities which aim to improve the quality of personnel engaged in international economic activities as a means of promoting economic exchange among Japan and other countries. It was set up in 1967 with funding from the Japanese Government and business sector. Key programmes currently implemented by IIST are: (i) international exchange programme; (ii) human resource development; (iii) information dissemination through the IIST World Forum; and (iv) research and studies. These programmes include the development of educational materials, area studies, and research and studies on international trade issues.
E-mail: info [at] ide.go.jp
3-2-2 Wakaba, Mihama-ku, Chiba-shi
Chiba, 261-8545, Japan
IDE is a research institution affiliated with JETRO that aims to make intellectual contributions to the world as a leading center of social-science research on developing regions. Its research activities provide an intellectual foundation to facilitate cooperation between Japan and the international community in addressing development issues. It conducts research on economic, political and societal issues in developing economies to support Japan’s expansion of harmonious trade and investment and the provision of international economic cooperation focused on these economies. Its research focuses particularly on supporting economic development in the East Asia and strengthening economic ties between Japan and East Asian countries. The institute also carries out comprehensive research on developing economies throughout the world, including those in South Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Eastern Europe, Latin America and Oceania.
E-mail: info [at] icett.or.jp
Mie, 512-1211, Japan
ICETT was established through the cooperation of industry, academia, and the Government to promote the transfer of Japan’s environmental conservation systems. It carries out training and technical guidance, research and development, surveys and the provision of information and activities intended to promote information exchange and raise public awareness. It covers, amongst other areas, energy efficiency, clean production and clean technology, and the promotion of environmental standards. ICETT provides technical assistance in the form of lecturers and instructors who conduct training overseas.
Tel: + 81 35 218 3100
Fax: + 81 35 218 3955
Tokyo 100-8144, Japan
Subway Tozai Line Takebashi Station Exit 3b
JBIC is a policy-based financial institution governed by the Japanese government, which has the objective of contributing to the sound development of Japan and the international economy and society through (i) conducting financial operations to promote the overseas development and securement of resources which are important for Japan; (ii) maintaining and improving the international competitiveness of Japanese industries; and (iii) promoting the overseas businesses having the purpose of preserving the global environment, such as preventing global warming. Given the operational principles such as supplementing the financial transactions implemented by private-sector financial institutions, JBIC also provides financial services necessary to prevent disruptions to international financial order or takes appropriate measures with respect to damages caused by such disruption.
E-mail: info [at] jef.or.jp
Tokyo 104-0061, Japan
JEF’s mandate is to deepen mutual understanding between Japan and other countries through a broad range of activities aimed at promoting economic and technological exchanges. It provides information about Japan and arranges opportunities to exchange ideas among opinion leaders from many countries in such fields as industry, government administration, academia and politics, with the aim of breaking down barriers to mutual understanding. Its key activities include: (i) arranging overseas visits for Japanese leaders; (ii) inviting foreign leaders to visit Japan; (iii) sponsoring international forums and seminars; (iv) conducting research on trade and industry in other countries (i.e., collecting information to help Japanese organizations with policy development); and (v) publishing information about the Japanese economy and developments in trade, industry and technology.
Tel: + 81 33 582 5511
6F 12-32 Akasaka 1-chome Minato-ku
This is a government-related organization, with over 50 offices worldwide, that works to promote trade and investment between Japan and the rest of the world. Facilitating economic growth in developing countries through trade promotion is also part of the core mandate. It helps companies from developing countries in Africa and Asia to promote their products in the Japanese market and has been working on various projects and activities to boost African and Asian exports to Japan through trade fairs and facilitating firms entering the Japan market. JETRO also works on trade negotiation issues, such as the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), and provides research support through the Institute of Developing Economies (IDE).
Tokyo 102-0073, Japan
JOI aims to facilitate sound and smooth FDI from Japan and to contribute to the expansion of international economic cooperation with countries around the world. The institution collects and analyzes a broad range of information from various agencies and organizations in Japan and overseas. Its seminars cover a wide range of themes and include seminars for foreign government officials visiting Japan on the economy, the investment climate and business opportunities. JOI also conducts research upon request on a broad spectrum of topics, such as the investment climate in emerging markets and various sectors, including energy.
Tel: +81 33 501 1511
Tokyo 100-8901, Japan
The responsibilities of METI cover not only the areas of exports and imports but also all domestic industries and businesses not specifically covered by other ministries in the areas of investment in plant and equipment, pollution control, energy and power, some aspects of foreign economic assistance, and consumer complaints. METI is also involved in the formulation of industrial policy, it is an arbiter of industrial problems and disputes, and a regulator. The major objective of METI and Japanese industry is to lead Japanese foreign trade policy that complements the ministry’s efforts to strengthen domestic manufacturing interests. METI facilitated the early development of nearly all major industries by providing protection from import competition, technological intelligence, help in licensing the foreign technology, access to foreign exchange, and assistance in mergers.
NEDO actively undertakes the development of new energy and energy-conservation technologies, verification of technical results, and the introduction/dissemination of new technologies. As Japan’s largest public research and development management organization, it endeavors to promote advanced technology that will enhance industrial technology and resolve energy and global environmental issues. NEDO plays a leading role by carrying out international demonstration projects and introducing stand-alone technologies as well as systems that integrate various technologies. NEDO aims to introduce advanced Japanese technologies to countries and regions around the world having diverse needs and infrastructures.
Nishikanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8359, Japan
The Japanese trade and investment insurance system were established in 1950 to facilitate Japanese companies’ export expansion and overseas business development. NEXI has operated this insurance system since 2001. NEXI (was originally established as an independent administrative institution in 2001) and was transformed into a special stock company governed by the Japanese government in 2017. It provides trade and investment insurance, covering the risks in overseas transactions conducted by Japanese companies, such as export, import, foreign investment, and overseas financing. The role of trade and investment insurance is to mitigate risks that are inherent in overseas transactions, such as restrictions on remittance of foreign currency, war and civil war, and non-payment by the buyer/borrower. By providing this insurance, NEXI facilitates Japanese trade and investment in other countries.
E-mail:info [at] rieti.go.jp ()
Tokyo, 100-8901 Japan
RIETI was set up in 2001 as a new platform to initiate creative and innovative policy debates based on world-class research, analysis and policy studies from mid- and long-term strategic perspectives. It serves as an economic and industrial policy platform which provides the Government with a theoretical backbone and a knowledge network. RIETI undertakes: (i) research and studies on economic and industrial conditions as well as relevant policies both within Japan and abroad; (ii) policy proposals and public relations and the dissemination of information through publications such as website articles, and by hosting a series of conferences; and (iii) data collection and management/ statistics processing and management. RIETI collaborates with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and conducts research in areas related to industrial policy and competitiveness, innovation systems, domestic and international trade and globalization, amongst others.
Other offical and NON-governmental organizations involved
E-mail: ltc [at] hidajapan.or.jp
Contact form: http://www.hidajapan.or.jp/hida/en/contact/index.html
Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0061, Japan
The Overseas Human Resources and Industry Development Association (HIDA) is an organization for human resources development in developing countries to promote technical cooperation through training, experts dispatch and other programs. Through those programs, HIDA aims at contributing to the mutual economic growth of developing countries and Japan as well as enhancing friendly relations between those countries.
Selected TCB programmes and initiatives in this guide
Strengthening of FDI Promotion – Cambodia
Training Course for developing countries on competition law and policy
Smallholder Horticulture Empowerment Promotion (SHEP) Approach
Japan-Africa Business Women Exchange Program (BWEP) (Invitation Program and Issue-based Training)
In addition to traditional development assistance organizations such as OECD/DAC member countries, UN agencies and IFIs (for example the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and African Development Bank), JICA has been strengthening relationships with organizations with an increasing presence such as the Islamic Development Bank.
For more information: http://www.jica.go.jp/english/our_work/partnership/overview.html
For more information: http://www.jica.go.jp/english/publications/reports/annual/2012/c8h0vm00002qe6vj-att/42.pdf
Examples of Japan’s collaboration with UN/international agencies are highlighted below (details are provided under the Trade-Related Categories):
WTO Doha Development Agenda Global Trust Fund (DDAGTF): DDAGTF finances technical assistance programs and training activities for developing and least developed countries. The aim is to better adapt their practices and laws to WTO rules and disciplines, improve the implementation of their obligations and enhance the exercise of their membership right. Japan has donated CHF 9.1 million on aggregate since 2002.
The Government of Japan, through METI, has been providing IP-related technical assistance in partnership with WIPO since 1987
Enhancing Private Sector Assistance for Africa (EPSA): EPSA is a multi-donor framework supporting the AfDB’s Private Sector Development Strategy. Drawing on successful development experience in Asia and around the globe, EPSA was conceived in partnership with the Government of Japan. A concessional loan has been set up with AfDB under the EPSA Non-sovereign Loan (NSL) component. Under EPSA, Japan has provided more than 1 billion US dollars in 5 years.